17  The Case for Gravitons                                          Table of Contents     Previous       Next

          

                     

Click on the picture for an interesting
experiment that traps light and makes it

look like a mass.





 

Compton wavelengths are the essence of gravity:

I will consider the graviton to be the fundamental element (or particle) that connects gravitational masses. A single graviton acts as if it had a Compton wavelength. By this I mean that the graviton acts similar to a photon but instead of propagating (hopping) in one direction it hops back and forth acting like a photon “trapped” at its fundamental mode between two mirrors.


I have taken the graviton mediator particle and I dressed in photon like clothes to see how it would look. I think it looks good in these clothes. My apologies to the physics community for having hijacked the term graviton.

Particle spin mechanics are determined by two wavelengths: a Compton wavelength and a deBroglie wavelengths. In the case of the graviton the Compton wavelength is the entire structure.
See
Section 30.

In this section I will attempt to show that:
1. Newton’s law of gravity works down to a minimum mass value that is the Planck mass. The graviton
    connects two Planck masses that operate like mirrors to reflect the graviton back and forth. These
    Planck masses are for the most part separated by astronomical distances which are the Compton
    wavelengths of the gravitons.
2. A graviton has two major characteristics:
     a) It provide an attractive force between the two Planck masses it spans.
     b) Since the graviton has a Compton wavelength λ = h/(mc) it has a mass all its own given by the
        equation m = h/(λc) where λ is the distance d separating the masses. The different geometry
        these graviton masses can take is the dark energy and dark matter in the universe. Dark matter
        is the geometry of gravitons within galaxies. Dark Energy is the geometry of gravitons between
        galaxies.    

3. Gravitational energy is quantized exactly as light energy is quantized. This type of quantizing forces
    a single gravitons to span between two Planck masses.
4. Gravitons will be shown (see below) to be the source of the gravitational force exactly as given by
    Newton’s law, with the detail that the force only applies to mass accumulations greater than a
    Planck mass. Note that this graviton source of gravity still needs to be compensated for relativity.
5. This concept of a graviton that has a mass opens up another way to visualize why space-time
    is curved under the influence of gravity.  I will attempt to show that mass and acceleration of mass
    are indirect drivers of a curved space-time. The space in the universe is loaded with gravitons
    which give it an index of refraction similar to that of a prism. If light traverses gradients of gravitons
    it will slow and bend as if it were passing through a prism. Gradients of gravitons in space not only
    cause light to bend but also provide the dark matter and dark energy in the universe.
    See
Section 20, Dark Matter and Mercury’s Orbit.
6. We have mistakenly said that mass directly bends space-time. For all practical purposes saying
    that mass bends space-time works, but once we realize that it is gravitons that are doing the trick
    we have a critical insight into dark matter and dark energy.


OK, now I need to show that these speculations makes sense and can be tested experimentally!


Making Newton’s law of gravity (Force = Gm1m2/d2) fit with the Planck-Einstein equation:
The Planck-Einstein equation is: (Energy = hf = Nhc/λ).

Where N is the number of photons (now considered gravitons) and hc/λ [which can be expressed as hc/d] is the energy of each graviton. The d is the distance between the masses.


1.
We can take the quantized energy equation of Max Planck [Energy = Nhc/λ] and convert it to
    something more natural in handling astronomical objects.  To do this we will say that the
    wavelength λ of each quanta (hc/λ) is the distance d that separates things like stars. With this
    assumption we now have the total gravitational quantum energy connecting two objects as            
    E = Nhc/d (where N is the number of gravitons). Let’s keep going an see if these gravitons make
    sense.

2. We can convert the energy E = Nhc/d to force by dividing by d to get F = Nhc/d2.  This results from
    the fact that energy is equal to force times distance or F = E/d. Where the distance is the separation
    between the two masses.

3. We now have two equations for gravitational force (F = Gm1m2/d2) and (F = Nhc/d2) and can
    solve for N (the number of gravitons connecting the two masses) and get: N = Gm1m2/(hc). This is
    interesting, but we can go further.

4. Noting that the Planck mass squared (Pm2) is equal to hc/G (see the definition of the Planck mass
    by clicking here). And by definition  h = h/(2π) so now N = Gm1m2/(2πhc) = (1/2π)(m1m2/Pm2)
   
N = (1/2π)m1m2/Pm2 is the number of gravitational photons connecting two objects m1 and m2.
   
This N is the number of gravitons appropriate for the calculation of dark energy.


5. For dark matter (as opposed to dark energy) N = m1m2/Pm2 . This difference of 2π is needed to
    correct for the circular motion of galaxies (where dark matter is located)
see Section 20.

Connecting gravitons to dark matter and dark energy:
The ease with which this quantized notion of gravity maps into Newton’s law of gravity is way beyond coincidence! Therefore I conclude that the graviton is the fundamental source of the force of gravity. However, there is something else going on. All graviton’s connect “observable” mass, but the individual graviton all by itself has a mass. The accumulation of individual graviton masses will have a gravitational effect on observable mass. This graviton mass has basically two ways of accumulating in the universe:


    Dark Matter is the accumulation of gravitons rotating with the stars in galaxies (Section 20).
    The number of dark matter gravitons is  N = m1m2/Pm  

    Dark Energy is the accumulation of gravitons interconnecting galaxies (Section 19).

    The number of dark energy gravitons is N = (1/2π) m1m2/Pm


This Is Astounding:
When the number of gravitons N that connects two masses is N = (1/2π) m1m2/Pm then Newton’s classical law of gravity (Force = Gm1m2/d2) results, only now the energy of gravity is quantized like light is quantized. This energy quantization of gravity forces all gravitons to have Planck mass connections. Each Planck Mass in the universe connects to every other Planck Mass in the universe in a most massive mind boggling network of gravitons. See Section 19 for a diagram that shows this network for dark energy.


This quantized look at the force of gravity is interesting and will account for both dark matter and dark  energy. However, this new quantized law of gravity still can be criticized as being inaccurate. It is only valid when m1 and m2 have low relative velocity and low masses, as is the case with Newton’s un-quantized law of gravity. Special relativity (distance and time considerations) still needs to apply to the Planck masses.

But haven’t I clobbered general relativity by having a graviton?
The Answer is no, general relativity will still be intact but its starting postulate will need to change from “Mass curves spacetime.” to “Masses create gravitons---Gravitons curve light paths--- Curved light in free space is the curvature of spacetime.” The creation of this extra step in general relativity is worth the price, since having gravitons will account for dark matter and dark energy.

Gravity for isolated Particles (Masses below the Planck mass)

Or Why should the Planck mass be fundamental to gravity?
This is where it gets tricky. Will a 0.1 Planck mass attract another 0.1 Planck mass? I do not have solid evidence against this. However, the calculations made above indicate that it will take gas accumulations of at least a Planck mass to begin to have a gravitational effect. Thus I suspect that an isolated 0.1 Planck mass will not attract another isolated 0.1 Planck mass. The minimum starting point for gravity begins with two Planck masses. It would be neat to see if an experiment can be designed to show that this is true.

For a continuation of this thread on gravity please see:
section 19: Dark Energy - Curved SpaceTime

section 18: Gravitons Explain Why Gyroscopes Work

section 20: Dark Matter and Mercury’s Orbit

section 21: Nitpicking General Relativity

section 35: Neutrinos and Light

section 36: Neutrinos and Gravity


And as always I remind my dear readers, this work is reasonable and yet very speculative.  The hard work is in making good experiments, theories are the easy part. 

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