18  Gravitons Explain why Gyroscopes work               


Ernst Mach postulated that Foucault’s pendulum moved with respect to the background of stars.  Click on image at left to go to the website describing Foucault’s Pendulum.


Why are the stars special?

You are standing in a field looking at the stars. Your arms are resting freely at your side, and you see that the distant stars are not moving. Now start spinning. The stars are whirling around you and your arms are pulled away from your body. Why should your arms be pulled away when the stars are whirling? Why should they be dangling freely when the stars don't move? 


How can the background of stars be the reference for all motion?

In general physics explains Foucault’s pendulum (or gyroscopes in general) by saying that the pendulum is oriented to an absolute space, and leaves it at that, even though the concept of an absolute space is questioned. I believe we can get a better notion of the concept of spacetime using the construct of gravitons and applying them to Foucault’s Pendulum and gyroscopes in general.


A visualization of how gravitons produce the force of inertia.
Einstein’s revelation that the effect of gravity and acceleration are equivalent is true because both forces are due to gradients of graviton density. This is my speculation that I believe can be tested.


In section 17 a case was made that gravitons connect all masses. Any object, say a golf ball, connects to the entire universe via a network of gravitons. These gravitons cause the force of gravity on the golf ball. This concept of a graviton network connecting to the stars can also explain why the golf ball has inertia. 


What happens when we drive a golf ball off the tee:
Usually we explain inertia via the equation F=ma, the force of inertia is due to acceleration of a mass.

I believe it can also be explained by interpreting F=ma as the force of inertia created by an increase of mass due to acceleration. Here is the though process:


a.  F = ma Newton’s original thought. A little thought shows this equation to be more of a pointer than 
     an exact relationship. Acceleration “a” is a place holder for a change of motion. Other types of
     position change such as “jerk” or impulse are higher order derivatives of position change and will
     also produce a force. This realization makes the formula F=ma a pointer and less of an exact
     relation. We have room to play and I will postulate that F= Δmk.


b.  F = Δmk     Where Δm is the change in mass of the golf ball and k is a constant.
                       This equation is more aligned with the concept that acceleration is equivalent to gravity.

c.  ma = Δmk  We get this equation from a and b above.

d.  Solving for “a” above we get:  a = k(Δm/m)

     The above logic indicates that any mass that accelerates experiences a mass increase and that
     this increase in mass and acceleration go hand in hand.

Einstein would explain the force of inertia as being caused by acceleration which curves spacetime. Graviton theory would explain inertia as a change in mass. When accelerated the golf ball gains mass. This more massive golf ball creates a modified network of gravitons connecting to the stars. The new graviton pattern has higher gradients of gravitons enhancing the index of refraction properties of its local spacetime. It is this modified graviton density around the golf ball that gives it a force of inertia when accelerating. Here is a visual of the concept:









Both the force of gravity and the force of inertia are due to gradients of gravitons. However, the force of gravity must exist first. Gravitational force creates the network of gravitons that a enable the golf ball’s inertia.









We can compare this curvature of spacetime (due to acceleration) with that produced by gravity:











  









The four phenomena produced by gravitons:

(for a definition of the graviton see section 17)

1. The force of gravity as expressed by Newton’ law of gravity is: Force = Gm1m2/d2

    It was shown in section 17 that gravity is quantized like light is quantized. This forces a single
    gravitons to connect two Planck masses. The density distribution of gravitons near masses
    produces a curvature of spacetime.


    The force of gravity falls off as 1/d2, thus the weight of a golf ball is a function of the local gravity of
    the Earth or the Moon or wherever it is located. The stars do not have much of an effect on the
    force of gravity experienced by the golf ball because they are too far away.

2. The force of inertia as expressed by Newton’ law of inertia is: Force = ma, where the acceleration
    “a” produces a change in mass of the accelerating object, a = k(Δm/m). This change in mass
     causes a change in the graviton distribution near the mass. This change in the distribution of
     gravitons due to inertia can also be interpreted as a curvature of spacetime.

     The force of inertia is not present for a stationary object. The object must be changing its
     motion (velocity) to experience the force of inertia. The force of gravity is alway present on the
     object no matter if it is changing its motion or not because the object is alway connected to the
     universe by a network of gravitons.


     The force of inertia is mostly determined by the star distribution in the universe. Consider driving a
     golf ball off a tee on Earth. The Earth has a small effect on the inertia of the golf ball, however this
     effect is overpowered by the stars effect on inertia. This is because the Earth has a small number
     of graviton connections that is easily overpowered by the many star gravitons connections to the
     golf ball.

     The force of inertia has no 1/d2 effect like the force of gravity, the force of inertia is only a
     function of the number of gravitons and their gradient density (aka the curvature of spacetime).


     Thus the weight of a golf ball is a function of the local gravity of the Earth or the Moon (or wherever
     the golf ball is located). The stars do not have much of an effect on the force of gravity experienced
     by the golf ball. The stars produce the vast majority of graviton connections to the golf ball and thus
     the acceleration of the golf ball to a very good approximation is with respect to the stars.   

3. Dark Matter: A distribution of graviton mass within rotating galaxies. See section 20.

4. Dark Energy: A distribution of graviton mass connecting the galaxies in the universe.
    See section 17


Acceleration is with respect to the stars (this is what enables gyroscopes):
A golf ball will be used the discussion below because it is a simpler than a pendulum or gyroscope.


  1. 1. Each Planck mass in a golf ball connects to every other Planck mass in the universe via a graviton.
    And we can say that a golf ball connects to the stars.

2.  As soon as the golf ball accelerates, its mass increases, causing a change in the density of
    gravitons local to the golf ball. This change in the density gradient of gravitons is the curvature of
    spacetime.

3. Extending this line of thought to gyroscopes: The gyroscope functions using angular
    acceleration instead of the linear acceleration of the golf ball (See section 21 and the concept of
    Frame Dragging). Thus the rotating gyroscope has a continuing acceleration very useful for making
    navigational instruments. And as with the golf ball, the gyroscope moves (rotates) with respect to
    the stars. And if we want, we can think of this as a curvature of spacetime phenomena.

Why am I messing with Einstein’s general relativity?
Einstein’s general relativity is essentially correct. I am including a small insight about gravitons so that general relativity can be extended to the universe of dark matter and dark energy.