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The Emission Spectrum:

1. Light Bulb:
For a light bulb the emission spectrum is know as “Black Body Radiation”. The intensity
profile of this radiation is only a function of the temperature (click picture on left for info).

2. Low density gas: The emission spectrum for the “hot gas” shown above is not continuous but has discrete emission lines. The emission lines were eventually explained as spontaneous emission (of photons) caused by electrons dropping to lower energy levels.

3. High density gas: The low density gas spectrum (hot gas in the diagram at the very top) morphs in an interesting way when the gas density is increased while maintaining its temperature constant. As the gas density increases the background noise (seen in the diagram) gradually turns into continuous “black body radiation”. This phenomena is universal, all the line spectrums produced for all the dilute gasses become black body spectrums when the density is high enough. 

4. An explanation for the line spectrum going away with increasing gas density:
    a. With a dense gas at the same temperature the individual collisions are less energetic but there
        are more of them. When the collision energy is low enough in a dense gas no spectrum lines are
        seen and all that remains is a continuous spectrum of blackbody radiation.
    b. Black body radiation is not a function of electrons changing energy levels within atoms or
        molecules, but is a function of the atoms or molecules accelerating and decelerating as a whole
        (oscillating). Basically there are two ways to get light energy. The first is to pump an electron in
        an atom or molecule to a higher energy level and wait for or stimulate it to drop back to its former
        level giving up a photon.  The second method of generating light is to accelerate an atom or
        molecule causing it to radiate light. The acceleration usually happens via thermal collisions (black
        body radiation). 
  
5. Some thoughts on a desktop fusion experiment:
    a.
Colliding gas atoms in a container are the most convenient source of high impact collisions.
        I believe these gas impact accelerations are the greatest in nature.
    b. The problem for confinement type fusion experiments is when the impacts get high enough the
        atoms don’t ricochet but their electrons get pumped (explaining the peak in the blackbody
        radiation).  See below for a trick (or if you like a hack) to get around this limit.
    c. The trick is to use a palladium wire as the container for the hydrogen. Load the wire with
        hydrogen (deuterium may be even better). Explode the wire in a bell jar and check for the
        presence of helium (and or excess energy). All on your desktop...maybe.
    d. Why this has a chance:
        1. An exploding wire can reach temperatures of approximately 5,000 deg K (bypassing the
            blackbody peak). We would like to have something like 10,000,000 deg K to imitate the
            center of the sun, so we are a little short....but there is hope.
        2. First, the palladium atoms are about 50 times more massive than hydrogen molecules.
            Impacts with hydrogen atoms will accelerate the hydrogen to higher velocities.
            The heavy palladium atoms when they hit a light hydrogen atom will transfer enough
            momentum to blast the hydrogen past the electron pumping mechanism (as discussed above)
            and allow the hydrogen atom to move past the  peak of the blackbody radiation causing it
            to attain much greater velocities than would be otherwise expected. With this boost of 50, the
            5,000 deg K of the exploding wire (palladium atoms) can be turned into an effective
            temperature of 250,000 degrees K for the hydrogen atoms.   
        3. Second, the hydrogen atoms when they are packed into palladium have a closer spacing than
            when they are not contained in the palladium. Since the average kinetic energy of the
            hydrogen is a function of its density, the higher the packing the higher the temperature after
            the impulse energy. Click here to see this very interesting reference on palladium. Click here
            for a quick cheap source of palladium.
            At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, palladium can absorb up to 900 times its own volume of
                hydrogen. "That means," says
Khalid Mansour, "that if you were to pump hydrogen into a bottle, it would take
                enormous pressure to store the same amount easily absorbed in a palladium bed of the same volume."
             
            This will give a possible 900 times boost to our effective hydrogen temperature, but even if it
            only gave a 40 times boost we are taking it to about 10,000,000 deg K equivalent
            temperature.     
        4. Third, we can turn the palladium wire into a short length of coax (looks like a stub), where the
            current on the center conductor runs opposite to the current on the outside. When current is
            flowing, the two conductors will attract, forcing the explosion inward somewhat like Tokamak
            confinement.

          









       5. I think this scheme has got a chance of producing some Helium and some power even without
            substituting deuterium for the hydrogen or operating at super cold temperatures. And as usual
            the devil is in the details. Click here for some information on exploding wires (the exploding
            watermelon video is very cool).
        6. The next trick that is needed will be to make this pulse of energy into a continuous source of
            useful clean power with no global warming attached. And of course we need to reclaim the
            vaporized palladium.
        7. Most importantly: personal protection and safety (due diligence) is required if you are going
            to play with this stuff!  If the concepts presented here hold....you may get an impressive
            explosion.
6. And if we do not get fusion, this technique may still be useful:
           
Getting hydrogen into the palladium involves little energy since it is done at room temperature.
            After the wire is heated (or explodes) the hydrogen will be released as a gas that can do work.
            Can the work done by the gas released be greater than the energy to heat the wire?
            I do not believe in perpetual machines, but this experiment strikes me as interesting because
            of the palladium catalyst.
7. What do you think?....to easy to be true?

Experiment to produce hydrogen fusion:  Don Limuti 1/11/2016





















           
      




   

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