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Visualizing Spin and Anti-Particles

Markus Ehrenfried has the best presentation on the concept of quantum mechanical spin I have found. Please click on the spinning top above to go to his web site. He very clearly points out how spin cannot be visualized and is currently understood only via the mathematics. I agree we cannot get a visualization of quantum mechanical spin using spinning tops, however there is a visualization using λ-hopping Planck Instances (defined in Section 30) that I think can provide some insight.

The Standard Model of Spin
In the standard model the difference between light and elementary particles is spin. We know the spin of a Fermion is 1/2 and the spin of a Boson is 1. The standard model also hints that the spin of the graviton is 2.  

The DWT Understanding of Spin: Yes, there is no classical “top” explanation of spin, but that does not mean we must give up on being able to visualize spin. Here is the way to do it via          λ-hopping Planck Instances. Please note that in Section 35 Planck Instances have been linked with neutrinos and I use the two terms interchangeably. Note also that spin may also provide a way to visualize the nature of anti-particles. 

The Planck Instances introduced in
Section 30 can have two types of wavelength associated with their movement in space-time. These wavelengths are the 1. Compton wavelength associated with the speed c and the mass of the particle, and 2. the deBroglie wavelength associated with the speed v and the mass of the particle. The Compton wavelength (associated with an elementary particle) is longer than a Planck length and shorter than an energetic gamma ray. The deBroglie wavelength for a particle is longer than the Compton wavelength of the particle and has no limit on how long it can be. 


For particles the the Compton wavelength and the deBroglie wavelength work together. The Compton wavelength of the Planck Instances “creates” the mass of the elementary particle, and the deBroglie wavelength part of the structure “creates” the velocity of the particle.  Section 30 explains how this works.


DWT takes the concept of “spin” and interprets it as “λ-hopping patterns”.

A catalog of the Patterns that can be fashioned from Planck Instances:


Light:
For light the
λ-hop of the Planck Instance propagates. This corresponds to a spin of 1. The symmetry of the spin can be seen by connecting two sequential Planck Instances with a string. If the Planck Instances and the string are rotated 360 degrees the same orientation results.







Elementary Particles:
For elementary particles the the λ-hop of a Planck Instance becomes more complex with a Compton wavelength and a deBroglie wavelength. Note that the Compton wavelength is associated with the speed c and the deBroglie wavelength is associated with the speed v. If each hop is done sequentially then the symmetry of rotation is 720 degrees. This corresponds to a spin of 1/2.











Anti Particles:
The anti particle also has a Compton wavelength and a deBroglie wavelength. However, now the Planck Instance has a different sequence as shown diagrammatically below:









Charge:
One of the differences between the electron and the positron that is seen graphically above is the direction of the Compton wavelength referenced to the deBroglie wavelength. Since the electron and the positron differ in the sign of their charge, this asymmetry may be thought of as the source of charge.

Gravitons:
For the graviton the λ-hop is a back and forth motion of Planck Instances (aka neutrinos). This corresponds to a spin of 2.  The symmetry can be seen by connecting two sequential Planck Instances with a string. If the Planck Instances and the string are rotated 180 degrees the same orientation results.






The Transition from Quantum Mechanical Particles to Classical Objects:


The Buckyball C60 is not a fundamental particle but consists of many fundamental particles that are held together by strong forces. Instead of a Compton wavelength it has what I call a Compton cluster, a distance over which the mass object exists.

The Buckyball is a quantum mechanical object because it can maintain a deBroglie wavelength over space-time.

As the mass of a particle increases to about that of a “flea” the Compton cluster length becomes equal to the deBroglie wavelength. At this point the object is just able to perform a clean λ-hop over itself, just maintaining the quantum mechanical property of “interference”.

The flea (approximately a Plank mass) is not close to being a quantum mechanical object, but if it could become compact enough so that it is held together by strong forces then it would be at the quantum mechanical limit.


As the mass of an object increase to values above the Planck mass, The Compton cluster length overlaps the deBroglie wavelength and the object starts to have a continuous existence in space-time.




Further increases in mass above the Planck mass result in objects like golf balls, which have a continuous existence in space-time, even though the constituent parts still λ-hop. The golf ball as a whole no longer λ-hops, and has a smooth and continuous motion in space-time.  At this point the deBroglie wavelength becomes meaningless.


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