33  AntiParticles - Chirality                                        Table of Contents       Previous        Next   



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Positron Annihilation:

The positron is the antiparticle of the electron, and when a positron enters any normal matter, it will find an abundant supply of electrons with which to annihilate. The energy released by the annihilation forms two highly energetic gamma rays, and if one assumes that the momenta of the positron and electron before the annihilation, the two gamma ray photons must travel in opposite directions in order to conserve momentum.




An intriguing puzzle arises when we consider that the laws of physics treat matter and antimatter almost symmetrically. Why then don't we have encounters with anti-people made of anti-atoms? Why is it that the stars, dust and everything else we observe is made of matter? If the cosmos began with equal amounts of matter and antimatter, where is the antimatter?”

Quote from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-antimatter-2002-01-24/


The Definition of an Electron and a Positron (see diagram below):

An electron consists of a Compton wavelength (λ=h/mc) followed by a deBroglie wavelength (λ=h/mv). Both λ-hops have direction. The deBroglie λ-hop is always in the direction the electron propagates. The Compton λ-hop can be opposed to the direction of the electron or in the same direction of the electron.  In an electron the two λ-hops are in the same direction.  In a positron (the anti-particle of the electron) the Compton hop is opposed to the deBroglie hop and hence is opposed to the direction of propagation of the positron.  


Collisions between electrons and positrons will result in the annihilation of both particles (see diagram at beginning of section). These particles because they have opposite charge and equal mass will rush at each other and annihilate.


Collisions between protons and anti-positrons will result in the annihilation of both particles (similar to electrons and positrons). These particles because they have opposite charge and equal mass will rush at each other with equal λ-hops.




The Recipe for Making a Hydrogen Atom (see diagram below):

A hydrogen atom consists of an electron and a proton that attract each other.  An anti-hydrogen atom consists of a positron and an anti-electron that attract each other.  In both instances the less massive particle tries to smash into the oppositely charged more massive particle. And in both instances the particles can’t annihilate because they have vastly different λ-hops, and the less massive particle ends up hopping back and forth about the more massive particle without ever smashing it.


With this recipe there are two possible hydrogen atoms we can make 1. hydrogen and 2. anti-hydrogen. See diagram below. 


The hydrogen atom that exists naturally in great abundance in the universe consists of an electron that succeeds in hopping over the proton, but it has to overcome the small hop of the proton in the going away direction.


The anti-hydrogen atom that is hard to find in nature consists of a positron that succeeds in hopping over the anti-proton because the anti-proton moves slightly in its direction.



Note that the hydrogen and the anti-hydrogen are mirror images of each other. We know that nature favors hydrogen over anti-hydrogen. Why would nature favor a structure and not its mirror image? See below.


CHIRALITY (click on image)


Many organic molecules, including glucose and most biological amino acids, are ‘chiral’. This means that they are different than their mirror-image molecules, just like a left and a right glove are. Moreover, in such cases life tends to consistently use one of the possible versions — for example, the DNA double helix in its standard form always twists like a right-handed screw. But the reason for this preference has long remained a mystery.



Why would nature favor a structure and not its mirror image?

Nature the magazine is a great publication, but the DWT explanation of chirality is better than the one provided by Nature (click on image of fish)... of course IMHO. 


At the beginning of the universe (the big bang if you like) there was one direction OUT, and everything moved in this direction. When particles first formed from Compton and deBroglie wavelengths, the Compton wavelengths came in just one variety, the variety that matched the direction of motion of the particle (out). All the hydrogen created had the Compton wavelength of the proton going in the direction of the particle. Since hydrogen is the building block of all other atoms and molecules, the universe was stuck with one chirality. I postulate that the universe at its start did not produce anti-hydrogen or mirror images of any atom or molecule. The chirality of the universe is not explained by minor symmetry differences between particles and anti-particles. The chirality of the universe is caused by the restrictions placed on how Compton wavelengths can λ-hop during the start of the universe. This asymmetry only allows particles and prohibits anti-particles.


Now in our laboratories and particle smashers we do not have beginning of the universe conditions. And thus when we make hydrogen (and other atoms and molecules in our labs) we have Compton wavelengths that go in both directions (with the motion of the particle and against the motion of the particle) and we produce hydrogen and anti-hydrogen, and all the other substances with mirror symmetry.


Are you grinning yet.....  And once again this is speculative stuff and good experiments are required. 


For more on the Compton wavelength see section 16.

For more on how particles are concatenations of Compton and deBroglie wavelengths see section 30.


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