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from Einstein, Bell and Aspect.

The controversy is still alive.

Entanglement Defined:    

Whenever an assembly of particles is held strongly together (like in atoms) they look like a single particle that is performing a λ-hop and they are said to be entangled. This means that the entangled particles act as if they have a single combined wavelength and period.

For a hydrogen atom this is relativity easy to visualize. Hydrogen has a single electron and a single proton that are attracted strongly to each other. The hydrogen atom is stable because its two respective particles try to collide but end up jumping over each other. It has been verified that hydrogen atoms behave quantum mechanically, that is each atom λ-hops as a whole unit and can be made to produce an interference pattern. Internal to hydrogen both the electron and proton are also λ-hopping in a synchronous dance. The nature of the hydrogen atom is such that its deBroglie wavelength is very small compared to something like Lake Geneva. Note that the hydrogen atom has three wavelengths associated with it, the wavelength of the atom itself, the wavelength of the proton and the wavelength of the electron. The hydrogen atom is like most entangled objects in that its wavelength as an atom is shorter than any of the component wavelengths. This is not true of all entangled objects.

The hydrogen atom is not usually thought of as an entangled proton and electron because it fulfills our expectations of how a single object behaves. If we stuff a golf ball inside a tennis ball, we can handle the combined object as a single object. The hydrogen atom object is a combined object (entangled) that can λ-hop as a whole (appears and reappears a wavelength away). This indicates that energy is holding everything tightly together and that to get a hydrogen atom to “de-cohere” will take the application of at least that much energy on the atom. 

There can be weakly entangled objects like a pair of photons with opposite polarization's. Alain Aspect successfully got an entangled pair of photons to span a few meters. Other researchers got the entangled photons to span Lake Geneva.

Unlike the hydrogen atom, the internal components of the two photon object (a photon thingy) have two internal particles (photons) that are moving apart from each at high speed (the speed of light). Yet the photon thingy is one thing that has a λ-hop that is very short. We can think of it as a balloon that is expanding rapidly, and yet the position of the balloon is mostly stationary. When this photon thingy explodes (disentangles), it explodes at both extreme points simultaneously (from the view of the original entanglement).  The photon thingy’s λ-hop is similar to the hydrogen atoms λ-hop, but the photon thingy comes apart at the end of its hop to become two photons, the hydrogen atom does not come apart at the end of its hop.

Alan Aspect said of his experiment:  it is impossible to assign local physical reality to each photon.”

This is exactly correct because the photon thingy does not exist during the hop, but at the end of the hop it becomes two separate photons. Note that both photons appear on the stage of space-time at the same time from the point they were created, one does not cause the other. This λ-hopping motion is basically the same for all all quantum mechanical objects and energy.

I can extend Aspects conclusion to be: it is impossible to assign local physical reality to any quantum mechanical entity either particle or photon.” This is because they move by λ-hopping.


Aspect explained his result in terms of entanglement and superposition. DWT believes that entanglement is a valid concept, however, superposition is a left over from classical wave theory, and needs to be reconsidered for objects that behave quantum mechanically.